In Spanish, location adverbs are usually constructed according to the following structure: Adverb (as such) or adverbial phrase + the preposition “de” + nominal nucleus to which the adverb refers.
For example (using first and third person pronouns):
- encima de mí / de usted;
- arriba de mí / de usted;
- debajo de mí / de usted;
- delante de mí / de usted;
and so forth.
Nevertheless, being that the preposition ‘de’ also defines ownership, many native Spanish speakers interpret adverbial phrases of this type as qualifying for ownership pronouns: “delante mío/ suyo”, “detrás mío/suyo”, “encima mío/suyo”. In more formal writing, these forms are considered spurious or illegitimate.